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# frequently in

Recall that a net is a function $x$ from a directed set $D$ to a set $X$. The value of $x$ at $i\in D$ is usually denoted by $x_{i}$. Let $A$ be a subset of $X$. We say that a net $x$ is *frequently in* $A$ if for every $i\in D$, there is a $j\in D$ such that $i\leq j$ and $x_{j}\in A$.

Suppose a net $x$ is frequently in $A\subseteq X$. Let $E:=\{j\in D\mid x_{j}\in A\}$. Then $E$ is a cofinal subset of $D$, for if $i\in D$, then by definition of $A$, there is $i\leq j\in D$ such that $x_{j}\in A$, and therefore $j\in E$.

The notion of “frequently in” is related to the notion of “eventually in” in the following sense: a net $x$ is eventually in a set $A\subseteq X$ iff it is not frequently in $A^{{\complement}}$, its complement. Suppose $x$ is eventually in $A$. There is $j\in D$ such that $x_{k}\in A$ for all $k\geq j$, or equivalently, $x_{k}\in A^{{\complement}}$ for no $k\geq j$. The converse is can be argued by tracing the previous statements backwards.

In a topological space $X$, a point $a\in X$ is said to be a *cluster point of a net* $x$ (or, occasionally, $x$ *clusters at* $a$) if $x$ is frequently in every neighborhood of $a$. In this general definition, a limit point is always a cluster point. But a cluster point need not be a limit point. As an example, take the sequence $0,2,0,4,0,6,0,8,\ldots,0,2n,0,\ldots$ has $0$ as a cluster point. But clearly $0$ is not a limit point, as the sequence diverges in $\mathbb{R}$.

## Mathematics Subject Classification

03E04*no label found*

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